爱因斯坦 – 《论教育》

爱因斯坦 – 《论教育》

最近在看爱因斯坦的传记,才知道爱因斯坦不仅是伟大的科学家,还是伟大的思想家,其教育理论也很有远见。这篇是爱因斯坦在1936年的著名的一篇关于教育的文章,《论教育》。全文推崇从实践中学习,学校的责任是培养独立行动、独立思考的个人,而不是填鸭知识,知识学校里是教不完的。好的教育是培养人的好奇心,使人有学习的乐趣,学校应做到布置作业被学生当成礼物,使学生对上学的喜爱胜过对假期的喜爱。正好译言上有全文翻译,推荐给大家。

Einstein On Education

A day of celebration generally is in the first place dedicated to retrospect, especially to the memory of personages who have gained special distinction for the development of the cultural life. This friendly service for our predecessors must indeed not be neglected, particularly as such a memory of the best of the past is proper to stimulate the well-disposed of today to a courageous effort. But this should be done by someone who, from his youth, has been connected with this State and is familiar with its past, not by one who like a gypsy has wandered about and gathered his experiences in all kinds of countries.

庆祝日的首要目的,通常是回顾往事,尤其是纪念那些由于对文化生活的发展而获得了特殊荣誉的人物。对我们前辈的这一友好的纪念活动实在绝对不应被忽视,特别是因为这种对往日盛事的回忆能够鼓舞今天的善良的人们无畏地努力。但是这件事必须由年轻时就与这个州紧密相连,并熟悉其过去的人来做,而不是由一个像吉普赛人一样四处流浪,在各种各样的国家积累经验的人来做。

Thus, there is nothing else left for me but to speak about such questions as, independently of space and time, always have been and will be connected with educational matters. In this attempt I cannot lay any claim to being an authority, especially as intelligent and well-meaning men of all times have dealt with educational problems and have certainly repeatedly expressed their views clearly about these matters. From what source shall I, as a partial layman in the realm of pedagogy, derive courage to expound opinions with no foundations except personal experience and personal conviction? If it were really a scientific matter, one would probably be tempered to silence by such considerations.

因此,我只能谈论一些与空间和时间无关的,过去是,今后也将是与教育事务相联系的问题。在这一努力的过程中,我一点也不能以权威自居,特别是因为从古到今的明智的本意善良的人们已经讨论过教育问题,并且已就这些问题反复地明白地表达了他们的观点。作为教育领域的半个门外汉,我阐述除个人经验和个人信念之外毫无根基的观点的勇气从何而来呢?如果这真是个科学的问题,人们可能会对这些考虑保持缄默。

However, with the affairs of active human beings it is different. Here knowledge of truth alone does not suffice; on the contrary this knowledge must continually be renewed by ceaseless effort, if it is not to be lost. It resembles a statue of marble which stands in the desert and is continuously threatened with burial by the shifting-sand. The hands of service must ever be at work, in order that the marble continue lastingly to shine in the sun. To these serving hands mine also shall belong.

但是,对活跃的人们来说,情况就不一样了。在此仅仅真理的知识就不够了。相反,若要知识不被抛弃,它就必须被不断的努力连续更新。它就像树立在沙漠里的一座大理石雕像,随时承受着被流沙埋藏的威胁。服务之手必须不断工作,以使大理石在阳光之下永远熠熠发光。我的手也在为大理石服务的手之列。

The school has always been the most important means of transferring the wealth of tradition from one generation to the next. This applies today in an even higher degree than in former times for, through modern development of the economic life, the family as bearer of tradition and education has been weakened. The continuance and health of human society is therefore in a still higher degree dependent on the school than formerly.

学校一直是把传统的财富从一代传给下一代的最重要的方式。今天这种重要程度超过了以前,因为通过经济生活的现代发展,家庭作为传统和教育的载体地位已经削弱。因此,人类社会的延续和健康比以前更加依赖于学校。

Sometimes one sees in the school simply the instrument for transferring a certain maximum quantity of knowledge to the growing generation. But that is not right. Knowledge is dead; the school, however, serves the living. It should develop in the young individuals those qualities and capabilities which are of value for the welfare of the commonwealth. But that does not mean that individuality should be destroyed and the individual become a mere tool of the community, like a bee or an ant. For a community of standardized individuals without personal originality and personal aims would be a poor community without possibilities for development. On the contrary, the aim must be the training of independently acting and thinking individuals, who, however, see in the service of the community their highest life problem. As far as I can judge, the English school system comes nearest to the realization of this ideal.

有时人们把学校看成仅仅是把尽可能多的知识传递给成长中的一代的工具。但这是不对的。知识是死的,而学校却是在为活人服务。它应该在青年人身上培养那种有益于公共福利的品质和能力。但这并不意味着消灭个性,把个人仅仅作为如蜜蜂或蚂蚁那样的社会的工具。因为由一个没有个人独创性和个人目标的标准化的个人所组成的社会,将是毫无发展可能的、可怜的社会。相反,学校的目标必须是培养能独立行动和思考的个人,而这些个人又把为社会服务视为最高的生活问题。在我看来,英国的学校体制距实现这个理想最为接近。

But how shall one try to attain this ideal? Should one perhaps try to realize this aim by moralizing? Not at all. Words are and remain an empty sound, and the road to perdition has ever been accompanied by lip service to an ideal. But personalities are not formed by what is heard and said, but by labor and activity.

但是人们怎么才能实现这一理想呢?是通过道德说教达到这一目标?绝对不是。言词现在是,今后将仍是空洞的声音,通往毁灭之路从来都是由关于理想的浮华之辞相伴。但是人格并不是由所听所说形成的,而是由劳动和行动形成的。

The most important method of education accordingly always has consisted of that in which the pupil was urged to actual performance. This applies as well to the first attempts at writing of the primary boy as to the doctor’s thesis on graduation from the university, or as to the mere memorizing of a poem, the writing of a composition, the interpretation and translation of a text, the solving of a mathematical problem or the practice of physical sport.

因而,最重要的教育手段是促使小学生们采取行动。这适用于小学生的第一次学写字,也适用于大学的博士论文,或者记一首诗,作一支曲,口译或笔译一篇文章,解决一道数学题目,或是进行体育运动。

But behind every achievement exists the motivation which is at the foundation of it and which in turn is strengthened and nourished by the accomplishment of the undertaking. Here there are the greatest differences and they are of greatest importance to the educational value of the school. The same work may owe its origin to fear and compulsion, ambitious desire for authority and distinction, or loving interest in the object and a desire for truth and understanding, and thus to that divine curiosity which every healthy child possesses, but which so often early is weakened. The educational influence which is exercised upon the pupil by the accomplishment of one and the same work may be widely different, depending upon whether fear of hurt, egoistic passion or desire for pleasure and satisfaction are at the bottom of this work. And nobody will maintain that the administration of the school and the attitude of the teachers does not have an influence upon the molding of the psychological foundation for pupils.

但是在每项成就背后都有一个作为其基础的推动力,这种推动力反过来又被所从事的事业中取得的成功所强化和滋养。在这里存在着最大的差别,这些差别对学校的教育价值至关重要。同一工作,其起源可能归因于恐惧和强制、追求权势和声名的野心勃勃的欲望,或是对对象的爱好、兴趣以及对真理和理解的要求,因此也可以是每个健康的孩子都有的、但很早就被削弱了的神圣的好奇心。完成同样一件工作对小学生产生的教育方面的影响可能有很大的不同,这取决于使他完成这件工作的内因究竟是害怕受伤害、利已主义的情感,还是获得喜悦和满足感。没有人会坚持认为学校的管理及教师的态度是对塑造小学生的心理基础毫无影响。

To me the worst thing seems to be for a school principally to work with methods of fear, force and artificial authority. Such treatment destroys the sound sentiments, the sincerity and the self-confidence of the pupil. It produces the submissive subject. It is no wonder that such schools are the rule in Germany and Russia. I know that the schools in this country are free from this worst evil; this also is so in Switzerland and probably in all democratically governed countries. It is comparatively simple to keep the school free from this worst of all evils. Give into the power of the teacher the fewest possible coercive measures, so that the only source of the pupil’s respect for the teacher is the human and intellectual qualities of the latter.

我觉得最坏的莫过于学校主要用恐吓、暴力和人为的权威等手段工作。这种做法摧毁了小学生健康的感情、真诚和自信。它产生出顺从的人。难怪这样的学校在德国和俄国居统治地位。我知道这个国家的学校里不会产生这种最坏的邪恶;在瑞士,也许在所有民主统治的国家中都是如此。使学校脱离这种所有邪恶中最坏的邪恶,相对来说比较简单。给予教师尽可能少的使用强制措施的权力,这样小学生对教师的尊敬的惟一来源就是后者的人性和理智品质。

The second-named motive, ambition or, in milder terms, the aiming at recognition and consideration, lies firmly fixed in human nature. With absence of mental stimulus of this kind, human cooperation would be entirely impossible; the desire for the approval of one’s fellowman certainly is one of the most important binding powers of society. In this complex of feelings, constructive and destructive forces lie closely together. Desire for approval and recognition is a healthy motive, but the desire to be acknowledged as better, stronger or more intelligent than a fellow being or fellow scholar easily leads to an excessively egoistic psychological adjustment, which may become injurious for the individual and for the community. Therefore the school and the teacher must guard against employing the easy method of creating individual ambition, in order to induce the pupils to diligent work.

所指出的第二个动机——雄心,说得委婉点就是以被承认和被尊敬为目标,牢固地存在于人的本性之中。没有这种精神刺激,人类合作就完全不可能;取得伙伴赞同的愿望肯定是社会最重要的束缚力之一。在这个感情复合体中,建构性的和毁灭性的力量密切相连。取得赞同和被承认的愿望是健康的动机;但要被承认比伙伴或者同学更优秀、更强大、更有才智,就很容易导致过份的自我为中心的心理调整,这可能对个人和社会都会造成伤害。所以学校和教师必须防止使用产生个人野心的简单方法以敦促小学生们勤奋学习。

Darwin’s theory of the struggle for existence and the selectivity connected with it has by many people been cited as authorization of the encouragement of the spirit of competition. Some people also in such a way have tried to prove pseudoscientifically the necessity of the destructive economic struggle of competition between individuals. But this is wrong, because man owes his strength in the struggle for existence to the fact that he is a socially living animal. As little as a battle between single ants of an ant hill is essential for survival, just so little is this the case with the individual members of a human community.

达尔文的生存竞争以及与此相联系的选择理论已被许多人作为鼓励竞争精神的权威依据来引用。也有一些人用这种方法试图伪科学地证明个人之间毁灭性的经济竞争的必要性。但这是错误的,因为人们进行生存竞争的力量,完全在于他是一个社会性的生活着的动物。正如蚁冢中单个蚂蚁之间的战争对于生存没有什么根本意义一样,人类社会中个体成员之间的斗争也是如此。

Therefore one should guard against preaching to the young man success in the customary sense as the aim of life. For a successful man is he who receives a great deal from his fellowmen, usually incomparably more than corresponds to his service to them. The value of a man, however, should be seen in what he gives and not in what he is able to receive.

因此人们应该防止向青年人宣传把这种习惯意义上的成功当作生活的目标。这种意义上的成功的人,通常从他们伙伴那儿得到很多,其所得通常远远超过他给他们的贡献。但是,人的价值应该体现于他能给予什么,而不是在于他能获得什么。

The most important motive for work in the school and in life is the pleasure in work, pleasure in its result and the knowledge of the value of the result to the community. In the awakening and strengthening of these psychological forces in the young man, I see the most important task given by the school. Such a psychological foundation alone leads to a joyous desire for the highest possessions of men, knowledge and artistlike workmanship.

在学校里和生活中,工作最重要的动机是工作中的乐趣,工作所得到的成果的乐趣,以及对该成果的社会价值的认识。在年轻人的这些心理力量的觉醒和强化之中,我看到了学校被赋予的最得要的任务。只有这样的心理基础才能导致一种快乐的愿望,去追求人类最高财富,即知识和艺术家般的技艺。

The awakening of these productive psychological powers is certainly less easy than the practice of force or the awakening of individual ambition but is the more valuable for it. The point is to develop the childlike inclination for play and the childlike desire for recognition and to guide the child over to important fields upon the desire for successful activity and acknowledgment. If the school succeeds in working successfully from such points of view, it will be highly honored by the rising generation and the tasks given by the school will be submitted to as a sort of gift. I have known children who preferred schooltime to vacation.

这些创造性的心理力量的觉醒当然比强力的施行或个人野心的觉醒困难,但它更有价值。重点在于发展孩子般爱玩的倾向及孩子般的对被承认的愿望,并把孩子引导到对社会很重要的领域;这种教育主要建立在对成功活动和被承认的愿望的基础上。如果学校成功地从这种观点出发进行工作,它将得到成长中的一代的高度尊重,学校给予的任务也被当作一种礼物来接受。我认识一些喜欢在校时光甚于喜欢假期的孩子。

Such a school demands from the teacher that he be a kind of artist in his province. What can be done that this spirit be gained in the school? For this there is just as little a universal remedy as there is for an individual to remain well. But there are certain necessary conditions which can be met. First, teachers should grow up in such schools. Second, the teacher should be given extensive liberty in the selection of the material to be taught and the methods of teaching employed by him. For it is true also of him that pleasure in the shaping of his work is killed by force and exterior pressure.

这样的学校要求教师在他的工作范围内是一位艺术家。如何才能在学校获得这种精神呢?对此不可能存在万能补救方法。就如个人不可能永远健康一样,但有一些能被满足的必要条件。首先,教师们应该在这样的学校里成长。其次教师在教学材料和使用的教学方法的选择方面应该拥有广泛的自主权。因为他在发展工作上的乐趣同样会被强力和外在压力扼杀。

If you have followed attentively my meditations up to this point, you will probably wonder about one thing. I have spoken fully about in what spirit, according to my opinion, youth should be instructed. But I have said nothing yet about the choice of subjects for instruction, nor about the method of teaching. Should language predominate or technical education in science?

如果至此你们都专心地跟上了我的思考,你们可能会对一件事感到奇怪。根据我的观点,我已谈了这么多究竟以什么精神来指导青年,但是关于课程内容和教学方法的选择,我却什么都没有说。占主导地位的究竟应该是语言,还是科学中的技术教育?

To this I answer: In my opinion all this is of secondary importance. If a young man has trained his muscles and physical endurance by gymnastics and walking, he will later be fitted for every physical work. This is also analogous to the training of the mind and the exercising of the mental and manual skill. Thus the wit was not wrong who defined education in this way: “Education is that which remains, if one has forgotten everything he learned in school. “For this reason I am not at all anxious to take sides in the struggle between the followers of the classical philologic-historical education and the education more devoted to natural science.

对此我的回答是这样的,在我看来这些都处于第二重要的地位。如果一个年轻人已经通过体操和跑步训练了他的肌肉和身体耐力,今后他将适应任何体力工作。头脑训练及脑力和手工技巧的训练也是类似的。因此,会说俏皮话的人下列说法大致不错,他把教育定义为:“如果人们已经忘记了他们在学校里所学的一切,那么所留下的就是教育。”正因为此,我一点也不急于在古典的语言—历史教育和更注重自然科学教育的两种方法的追随者们的斗争中表态。

On the other hand, I want to oppose the idea that the school has to teach directly that special knowledge and those accomplishments which one has to use later directly in life. The demands of life are much too manifold to let such a specialized training in school appear possible. Apart from that, it seems to me, moreover, objectionable to treat the individual like a dead tool. The school should always have as its aim that the young man leave it as a harmonious personality, not as a specialist. This in my opinion is true in a certain sense even for technical schools, whose students will devote themselves to a quite definite profession. The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. If a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way and besides will better be able to adapt himself to progress and changes than the person whose training principally consists in the acquiring of detailed knowledge.

另一方面,我想反对另一观念,即学校应该教那些今后生活中将直接用到的特定知识和技能。生活中的要求太多样化了,使得在学校里进行这种专门训练毫无可能。除此之外,我更认为应该反对把个人像无生命的工具一样对待。学校应该永远以此为目标:学生离开学校时是一个和谐的人,而不是一个专家。我认为在某种意义上,这对于那些培养将来从事较确定的职业的技术学校也适用。被放在首要位置的永远应该是独立思考和判断的总体能力的培养,而不是获取特定的知识。如果一个人掌握了他的学科的基本原理,并学会了如何独立地思考和工作,他将肯定会找到属于他的道路。除此之外,与那些接受的训练主要只包括获取详细知识的人相比,他更加能够使自己适应进步和变化。

Finally, I wish to emphasize once more that what has been said here in a somewhat categorical form does not claim to mean more than the personal opinion of a man, which is founded upon nothing but his own personal experience, which he has gathered as a student and as a teacher.

最后,我想再次强调,在此以一种多少有点较为绝对的形式所谈的内容,代表的只不过是我的个人观点,其基础仅仅是自己作为学生和教师积累的个人经验。谢谢您给我这个机会,能在如此有意义的会议上发表这些看法。

转自: http://article.yeeyan.org/view/175350/188341

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